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8D-Report

The 8D Report is a team-oriented, problem-solving process applied in the form of a service provided by the supplier for the customer in event of a complaint. The 8D Report is part of the complaint management system.

The type of complaint, the responsibilities and the measures for the rectification of the fault are noted and defined in the report. The 8D Report has been standardised by, among others, the VDA (Association of Automotive Industry Manufacturers) and will continue to gain in importance through the linking of production processes across company borders (supply chain management) and in the continuous improvement of production processes. 
The 8 steps:

- configure the team
- describe the complaint
- decide on immediate measures to be applied
- identify the reason for the complaint
- decide on remedial measures
- apply remedial measures
- avoid any repeat of the complaint
- recognise the efforts of the team

ACS

Sanitary conformity accreditation
Institut Pasteur
Drinking water approval for France
 

Ageing protection

Ageing protection agents, such as ozone protection agents, are organic compounds used in relatively small dosages in order to prevent the vulcanised material from ageing. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to effectively combat the effects of ageing with a single protective agent. What this calls for instead is a range of complementary protective agents applied to fulfil all practical requirements. Depending on the protective effect applied, the distinction is made between:

- anti-oxidants which are particularly effective in combating the effects of oxygen
- anti-ozone agents which principally delay or prevent the appearance of cracks caused by the effects of ozone under static load
- special protective agents providing protection against particular types of ageing, e.g. light, repeated bending fatigue, hydrolysis, etc.
 

APQP

Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) is an ongoing system of project management applied for product and quality planning purposes, and applicable for all phases of the development process.

The objective is to create a standardised and product-related document structure providing the user (the manufacturer) with the necessary degree of transparency for the manufacturing process. The intention here is to simplify product control. All of the information and documents of relevance to the project and product are centrally planned, monitored and administered.
 

AQL Acceptance Quality Level

The AQL Level is a figure calculated from random sampling (acceptable quality limits) that defines the percentage of faulty parts that a delivered quantity is allowed to contain. The level is negotiated between customer and supplier.
 

Artificial ageing

The degradation of polymers and polymer networks takes place through the application of energy in the form of heat and light, and due to oxidisation processes. The various ageing processes are differentiated on the basis of the various processes involved:
- thermal ageing
- effects of ozone exposure
- effects of UV radiation exposure
- effects of oxygen exposure
- effects of mechanical loadings (creation of fatigue-induced cracks)
 

Belaqua

Drinking water approval for Belgium
 

Batch

A defined quantity of some product or material produced under the same conditions. A distinction is made between material, production and shipping batches.

Material batch = all parts manufactured from a raw material shipment.
All parts manufactured from a continuous production process undertaken without change is referred to as a production batch. All components making up a shipment of goods are a shipping batch.
 

BAM

'Oxygen' certificate issued by the BAM (German Material Research and Testing Institute)
The licence applies only for specific operating conditions:

Temperature            max. oxygen pressure
to 60°C                   50 bar
> 60°C   to 100°C    40 bar
> 100°C to 140°C    30 bar

One of the most widely recognised functions of the BAM is checking pyrotechnic items, e.g. fireworks. Only pyrotechnic items with certification from the BAM may be sold in Germany. Other high-profile public activities of the BAM are the certification of protective capsules for hazardous goods in shipment, the further development of non-destruction tests for the early identification of damage and the avoidance of accidents, and the development and provision of reference materials for analytical chemistry, e.g. in environmental laboratories.
 

BMW GS 93010

Elastomer specifications for a variety of automotive applications
BMW GS 93010 XX XXX-P-XXD-M

XX = application key number
XXX = consecutive number
P = material abbreviation
XX = Shore A hardness
D = only necessary when Shore D is required
M = only necessary when compound release is required
 

Bulking agents

Both soot and mineral bulking agents are added to rubber in great quantities to make it possible to process it and to obtain the desired vulcanisation properties, especially hardness. Most bulking agents have a more or less 'hardening' effect on the vulcanised material. What is understood as 'hardening effect' in the rubber industry is the improvement of a series of vulcanisation properties, such as resistance to abrasion, elongation at tear, tensile value, and resistance to tear propagation and abrasion. However there is hardly any bulking agent with the effect of reinforcing all of these properties at the same time. It is therefore appropriate to speak of reinforcing effects only in connection with specific mechanical properties.
 

CC Critical Characteristics

These critical parameters are relevant for safety or legal requirements. They can also refer to stages in the production process. Critical parameters must be included in the control plan.
 

Coatings

There are two distinct coating systems: short-term and long-term coatings. As a rule, short-term coatings are used to facilitate assembly and minimise any friction-based resistances arising. Use is often made here of talcum, Molykote lubricants or silicone oil.

Long-term or permanent coatings are in most cases found in applications aimed at reducing friction permanently. One example of this is the plug-fit connector which is subject to frequent movement over its service life and in which the O-ring is designed to support a slight degree of compression at all times. In this case, a PTFE lacquer coating is normally applied, with the advantage that this allows for the use of colour in the design. However, plasma treatment can also reduce friction through artificial ageing of the surface.
 

Compression set ASTM D 395 B

Compression set test to identify the recovery properties of elastomer materials after an extended period under pressure tension. The test measures the residual deformation of the specimen after it has been exposed to a pressure tension for a specified period of time at a specified temperature. The thickness of the original specimen is measured at the outset. The specimen is then inserted between the spacers in the compression device. The specimen is compressed by 25% of its original height. The spacers allow for exact measurement of the compression force applied. After assembly, the entire device is placed in the heating cabinet at a specified temperature and for a specified time. Once the specimen has been removed from the heating cabinet, the specimen is taken out of the device and set aside to cool for 30 minutes at ambient temperature, before being measured.

DVR= [(to - ti) / (to - tn)] * 100

to = original specimen thickness; ti = specimen thickness as tested after recovery; tn = thickness under 25% compression
 

Critical dimensions

The critical dimensions in a technical drawing indicate those dimensions which are critical for the application. Those dimensions which must essentially be maintained within the required tolerance range are marked to draw attention to their criticality.
 

DBL 6038.XX

This is the Mercedes Benz supply specification for O-rings and similar sealing rings manufactured from elastomer.
This standard works with application keys, with the key describing the contact medium and the material. The relevant tests are also stipulated in the standard.
Example: DBL 6038.40. The '40' stands for mineral oil and fuel, with the material described as bisphenolically cross-linked with FKM.
 

Deburring

Deburring takes place after the pressing or injection moulding production stage.
As a rule, during pressing burrs are created along the lines where the tool is separated as the combination of heat and pressure during pressing allows the halves of the tool to "breathe", thus creating a gap of minimal dimensions.
When injecting into a mould, the satellite channels and the burr created between the halves of the tool must be removed.
There are two different ways of removing burrs:

- by sanding down the component in a drum (barrel finishing) using abrasive stones and a liquid.
- another approach is nitrogen deburring, in which process the components are cooled to just above their glass point and are then blasted with shot. As the burr is thinner than the actual material, it is very brittle and therefore breaks off much more easily than the component with its much greater mass of material.
 

DIN EN 681-1 WA/WB/WE

Drinking water certification
cold up to 50°C
hot up to 110°C
 

DIN EN 681-1 WC/WD/WF/WG

Service water certification
hot and cold
 

DIN ISO 3302-1

Tolerances for rubber moulded parts

Tolerances are stipulated for rubber moulded parts in accordance with DIN ISO 3302-1. A distinction is made between 4 tolerance classes, from M1 = fine to M4 = coarse. Depending on the press direction of the mould, the standard also distinguishes between mould-dictated dimensions (F) and the 2-component adhesion system measurements dictated by the mould closure (C). Depending on the process, the tolerance dimensions associated with the mould closure are greater than the dimensions dictated by the mould (F).

The tolerances for technical rubber moulded parts are normally stipulated in accordance with tolerance class M3 = middle. 

Basic size
(mm) 
Tolerance class M1
(very fine) (mm)
Tolerance class M2
(fine) (mm)
Tolerance class M3
(middle) (mm)
Tolerance class M4
(coarse) (mm)
over up to F C F C F C F + C
0 4 ± 0.08 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.15 ± 0.25 ± 0.4 ± 0.5
4 6.3 ± 0.1 ± 0.12 ± 0.15 ± 0.2 ± 0.25 ± 0.4 ± 0.5
6.3 10 ± 0.1 ± 0.15 ± 0.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.3 ± 0.5 ± 0.7
10 16 ± 0.15 ± 0.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.25 ± 0.4 ± 0.6 ± 0.8
16 25 ± 0.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.25 ± 0.35 ± 0.5 ± 0.8 ± 1
25 40 ± 0.2 ± 0.25 ± 0.35 ± 0.4 ± 0.6 ± 1 ± 1.3
40 63 ± 0.25 ± 0.35 ± 0.4 ± 0.5 ± 0.8 ± 1.3 ± 1.6
63 100 ± 0.35 ± 0.4 ± 0.5 ± 0.7 ± 1 ± 1.6 ± 2
100 160 ± 0.4 ± 0.5 ± 0.7 ± 0.8 ± 1.3 ± 2 ± 2.5
160   ± 0.3% ± 0.4% ± 0.5% ± 0.7% ± 0.8% ± 1.3% ±1.5%

DIN 3771 O-ring standard

The standard DIN 3771 defines failure types and differentiates between acceptable variations of form and surface on the basis of N and S characteristics. The grade of the failure is the decisive factor here, with S representing the restricted failure grade.

Part 1 lists the dimensions d1 and d2 along with the tolerances.
 

DIN 7715 Part 5

DIN 7715 is the predecessor standard of DIN/ISO 3302. DIN 7715 Part 5 specifies the permitted tolerances for plates and plate-based articles.

Basic size (mm)
over    up to
Tolerance class
P1 (mm)
Tolerance class
P2 (mm)
Tolerance class
P3 (mm)
0 1.6 ± 0.2  ± 0.2  ± 0.4 
1.6 4 ± 0.2  ± 0.3  ± 0.4 
4 6.3 ± 0.2  ± 0.4  ± 0.5 
6.3 10 ± 0.3  ± 0.5  ± 0.6 
10 25 ± 0.3  ± 0.6  ± 0.8 
25 40 ± 0.4  ± 0.8  ± 1.0 
40 63 ± 0.5  ± 1.0  ± 1.5 
63 100 ± 0.6  ± 1.2  ± 2.0 
100 160 ± 0.8  ± 1.4  ± 2.5 
160 250 ± 1.0  ± 1.6  ± 3.0 
250 400 ± 1.6  ± 2.5  ± 5.0 
400   ± 0.5% ± 0.8% ± 1.5%

 

DVGW

Gas certification
DIN EN 549 Gas Appliances and Systems
DIN EN 682 Gas Supply Lines and Pipelines
 

FDA

FDA = certification for foodstuffs additives
FDA = Food and Drug Administration (USA)
Testing as per Directive 21 CFR Part 177.2600,
i.e. testing of recipe with exactly specified ingredients.
Extraction tests in liquid and fatty foodstuffs.
 

FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

Systematic method for the prevention of failures
FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis): analysis of effects, for short
 

Finite element method (FEM)

The finite element method is a numerical procedure for the approximate solution of, in particular, elliptical, partial differential equations with peripheral conditions. It is frequently applied in engineering for simulation calculation purposes. It makes it possible to simulate new geometries before the model is actually produced. The temperature or pressure loading, for example, can be simulated.
 

GADSL Global Automotive Declarable Substance List

The GADSL is the result of a year-long global effort undertaken by representatives of the automotive industry to facilitate communication and exchange of information regarding the use of certain substances in automotive products.

GADSL includes banned substances and obligatory declarations and is used as an aid in the implementation of other measures, such as the subsequent reuse of materials from old cars in the EU, including Directive 2000/53/EC on end of life vehicles.

It is administered by the Global Automotive Stakeholder Group (GASG) and is issued at least once a year in a newly-revised version (in February, as a rule). The necessary work is co-ordinated through three regional groups (America, Europe/Africa/the Middle East and Asia/Pacific). Automobile manufacturers, automotive suppliers and raw materials suppliers are represented in all three groups.

Declaration in the IMDS (International Material Data System) is made on the basis of GADSL.

Glass transition temperature

The glass transition temperature is determined by applying thermo-analytical methods (DTA, DSC) or by means of thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA). There is no standard method stipulated for determining the glass transition temperature.
 

IMDS International Material Data System

The term IMDS (International Material Data System) designates a system of archiving, exchange and administration for the vehicle construction sector. A material data sheet is produced on the basis provided by IMDS designating all of the materials and proportions of material components used for the relevant component and all of the required data subsequently necessary for the recycling of the vehicle component at a later date.

IMDS was developed jointly by Audi, BMW, Daimler, Chrysler, Ford, Opel, Porsche, Volkswagen and Volvo. In the meantime, other automobile manufacturers have adopted this system. EDS in Rüsselsheim was identified as the preferred partner for this Internet-based platform. IMDS is run as a UNIX-based application through a central database to ensure that automobile manufacturers have 'just-in-time' access to the required material data sheets.

The objective of the IMDS system is to fulfil the conditions set by national and international legislations as they apply for automobile manufacturers and suppliers in the form of standards and legal regulations, especially in the environmental context. Every automobile manufacturer and supplier bears responsibility for all aspects of its product and for its entire life cycle, from production, use and recycling through to disposal. Manufacturers are also obliged to provide details of the composition of the materials for the products used in the automobile to allow the original composition of the material to be reconstructed  and assigned to risk categories. This now means that automobile manufacturers have access to information on the composition of the their product components.
 

IRHD Hardness

Along with Shore hardness, ball impression hardness as per DIN ISO 48 - Part 1 represents a further testing procedure for establishing the hardness of elastomers. Ball impression hardness is defined as the resistance provided by a rubber sample to being penetrated by a ball of 2.5 mm or 5.0 mm diameter applied under a specified pressure. There is a distinction made between soft and normal subdivisions.

For samples of small dimensions, it is possible to calculate what is termed 'micro-hardness' as per DIN ISO 48 - Part 2. This measurement uses a very small ball with a diameter of 0.4 mm.
 

ISO 9000 Series Quality System Standards

The EN ISO 9000 ff. series creates standards in documentation of the basic principles of quality management. As a whole they form a coherent set of standards for quality management systems with the function of facilitating mutual understanding at both national and international level.

Every product is covered by different specific requirements and can therefore be produced under individually-tailored quality assurance conditions. Conversely, quality management systems are not product-oriented and can therefore display a similar structure, irrespective of sector and the specific products involved.

As a basic principle, the EN ISO 9000:2000 ff. standards are of a process-oriented structure.
 

ISO 14000 Series Environmental Management System Standards

The ISO 14000 environmental standard addresses the aspects of management of the environment associated with production processes and services. This equates to the identification and control of effects on the environment, improving environmental compatibility and the system applied for setting environmental targets. There is no graduated system stipulated in this connection, with the target representing a standardised and strategic framework or an environmental management system. The standard should be viewed in relation to ISO 9000 and ISO 26000, and applies for all organisations and commercial enterprises.
 

ISO / TS 16949 (QS 9000 + VDA 6.1 + ISO 9001:2000)

Certification for supply operations. All of Dichtomatik's principal suppliers hold this certification.

The ISO/TS 16949 standard combines all of the existing general requirements for the automotive industry's quality management systems (mainly in North America and Europe). It was developed jointly by the members of IATF and published in collaboration with ISO as a TS (Technical Specification), taking EN ISO 9001 as its basis. [1] Around 30 % of the more than 100 automobile manufacturers in existence adhere to these harmonised requirements of the nine IATF members (BMW, Chrysler, Daimler, Fiat, Ford, General Motors, PSA, Renault, VW) - however the major Asian automobile manufacturers in particular have their own differentiated requirements for the quality management systems of their groups and their suppliers.
 

Kanban System

Kanban is a production process control method based on the 'pull' principle (also referred to as the 'fetch' or 'call-up' principle) and operates exclusively in response to demand at a point of consumption in the manufacturing process. Autonomous control circuits at workflow level represent the core element of this flexible production control system. This makes it possible in the long term to reduce the stocks of intermediate products held. At the same time it also allows stock inventories to be reduced/optimised at the level of the final product. In the most favourable case, the entire chain of added value can be controlled from the final product right back to the processing of the material used in the initial stage of manufacture/production.
 

KIWA

Certification for the Netherlands for seals in drinking and waste-water pipe connections.
 

KTW

Plastics in drinking water for cold, warm and hot water.
There are four temperature gradations: 23°C, 60°C, 85°C and 90°C.

There is also a Worksheet W270 dealing with the proliferation of micro-organisms on materials in drinking water installations.

Worksheet W534 deals exclusively with pipe connectors and pipe connections in drinking water installations. (One test in this area is DVR 110°C / 1000h).
 

Manufacturing processes

Compression Moulding:
In the CM (compression moulding) procedure, 'slugs' are produced by means of extrusion followed by stamping, or by being cut out of the unvulcanised rubber mixture. These blanks are then inserted in the cavities of the tool - heated to vulcanising temperature - and moulded into the desired geometry for the moulded part with the application of both pressure and heat. Vulcanisation commences more or less rapidly after moulding has taken place.

Injection Moulding:
The injection moulding process is the main - and most recent - procedure for the production of moulded parts. In the ideal case, this represents an automatic cycle consisting of plastification, heating, injection, vulcanisation and removal from the mould. The main advantage over compression moulding lies in the shorter cycle and vulcanisation time. The drawback is that it generates more waste due to the presence of 'sprues', etc.

Transfer Moulding:
In its simplest form, the transfer moulding tool consists of three parts. the top and bottom parts are held firm in the press tensioning plates, while the middle part can be removed or slid out. The top part of the mould is shown as the compression piston, with the middle part holding the pot for the mixture and the 'sprues' or injection channels, while the bottom part contains the actual moulding cavities.
 

Material certificates (EN 10204)

 Types of test certification

Content of certificate

Confirmed by

 

 

 

2.1 Works certificate

Order compliance certificate

The manufacturer

2.2 Works certificate

Order compliance confirmation indicating the results of non-specific testing

The manufacturer

3.1 Acceptance test certificate

Order compliance confirmation indicating the results of specific testing

The manufacturer's acceptance officer, acting independently of the manufacturing department

3.2 Acceptance test certificate

Order compliance confirmation indicating the results of specific testing

The manufacturer's acceptance officer, acting independently of the manufacturing department and the acceptance officer designated by the customer or the acceptance officer stipulated in the official regulations


 

MSA Measurement System Analysis

The term measurement system analysis or MSA (analysis of the capacity of measurement or testing equipment) is used to designate the analysis of the capacity of measurement equipment and complete measurement systems as part of the quality management process, and also in Six Sigma.
 

ÖNorm B5014-1

Drinking water certification for Austria
 

PPAP - Production Part Approval Process

The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is a process specifying general requirements for the approval of a production part. This achieves a level of standardisation in the product sampling process. This standardised PPAP process makes it possible to provide evidence that the supplier commissioned has understood the product requirements and has put an appropriate quality plan in place.

PPAP divides the sampling process into five different levels (submission levels) with Level 3 being regarded as standard where the customer has not indicated any specific conditions in respect of the sampling level.

Level 1: this level requires a part submission warrant (PSW) and, for specific parts, the report for the approval of appearance-dependent products.
Level 2: this level requires a part submission warrant (PSW), sample parts and some supporting data.
Level 3: this level requires a part submission warrant (PSW), sample parts and full supporting data.
Level 4: this submission level requires a part submission warrant (PSW) accompanied by data specified by the customer.
Level 5: the final level requires a part submission warrant (PSW), sample parts and full data. There must also be supplementary supporting data held available for inspection at the production site.
 

PPM Parts Per Million

Defect rates as agreed between customer and supplier.
 

Process-FMEA (P-FMEA)

Situations triggering a Process FMEA

- new constructions, technologies or processes
- modification of an existing process
- the use of an existing process in a new environment, at a new location or for a new application

Procedure:
- the entire process is broken down into its sub-processes / work steps / workstations
- detailed description of the contents of the process with the existing sequence of process stages observed
- description of the specific product features to be created in the relevant stages of the process
- derivation of potential failures from the content of the process, with reference to the possible causes of failure from the 5 Ms: Man, Machine, Material, Material environment and Method.
- description of the consequences arising out of the failure in conjunction with the FMEA Design details
- assessment of the potential risks and production of a ranking list of risks
- derivation of optimisation measures and production of a list of measures
- presentation of potential for optimisation based on an assessment of the targeted final situation.
 

Process Capability Indices

1. Short-term capability or machine capability
cmk > 1.6 at +/- 5 Sigma (50 parts in 10 random samples)

2. Provisional process capability (pilot series)
ppk > 1.67 at +/- 5 Sigma (20 random samples x 3 parts)

3. Long-term process capability
cpk > 1.33 at +/- 4 Sigma (20 days, 25 random samples x 5 parts)

4. Zero failure production
cpk > 2.0 at +/- 6 Sigma
 

PV 3307

The testing device composed of finished parts or testing plates is compressed in accordance with the testing diagram (see illustration) in the middle range, to 50% of the initial thickness. The testing medium is selected to match the practical range of application for the relevant product. Storage can be at room temperature, increased temperatures, under the effects of liquids or the like. Standard testing times are 22 hours, 46 hours and 94 hours.

Samples stored at higher temperatures are allowed to cool after having been removed from the oven, at room temperature and still under pressure. Measurement is carried out 5 seconds after the pressure is released.
 

PV 3330

This special permanent set test is related to the intended application for the O-ring to be tested. Depending on the ring thickness, the compression figure should be between 30% and 50%, usually 40%, however this should be specified on the drawing. The test temperature depends firstly on the temperature resistant properties of the material for testing, and secondly on the long-term temperature to which it is exposed in service.
 

PWIS-free

PWIS-free means that a material is free of paint-wetting impairment substances. The requirement PWIS-free includes a silicone-free requirement.

The PWIS-free requirement is applied mainly in the automotive industry. Products which exude or have attached to them substances like silicone, wax or stripping agents may not be used in production stages prior to the painting process, as contact with these substances gives rise to paintwork flaws. PV 3.10.7 is a rapid test to check PWIS-free condition.
 

REACH

Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH Regulation) is a EU regulation on chemicals which came into force on 1 June 2007. REACH stands for the "Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals". As an EU Regulation, REACH is applicable to the same extent and directly in all Member States. With REACH, a basic process of harmonisation and simplification has been applied to the existing chemicals legislation. Manufacturers or importers producing or importing into the European Union simple substances and/or substances in preparations in volumes of more than one tonne a year fall under the area of application of REACH. In this connection there is a distinction made between the terms 'phase-in' substances and 'non-phase-in' substances (see below).

Manufacturers/importers are physical persons or legal entities based in the European Community producing a substance or with responsibility for its importation [Article 3 REACH Regulation]. Manufacturers in the form of a physical person or legal entity based outside the Community importing substances, preparations and/or products may, by mutual consent, appoint a physical person or a legal entity based within the Community to fulfil the relevant importer's obligations on their behalf, acting as their 'sole representative'. If a sole representative is appointed, the manufacturer based outside the Community informs the members of its supply chain based within the Community accordingly [Article 8 REACH Regulation].
 

RoHS Restriction of (Use of) Hazardous Substances

The Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic equipment (2002/95/EC) regulates the use of hazardous materials in appliances and components. It, and its respective embodiment in national law, is abbreviated to RoHS - Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances).

The objective of this Directive is to eliminate the use of problematical components from products, in the wake of the massive proliferation of disposable electronics. This includes, among other things, promoting the lead-free soldering of electronic components, forbidding the use of toxic flame retardants in the manufacture of cables and promoting the introduction of the corresponding substitute products. The parts and components used must themselves likewise be free of the corresponding materials.
 

SC Significant Characteristics

This term is applied to significant characteristics with a particular effect on function or assembly. The characteristics must also be included in the control plan.
 

Shore Hardness

Shore hardness takes its name from one Albert Shore. It is a reference value applied to elastomers and plastics and is specified in the DIN 53505 and DIN 7868 standards. The central element of the Shore hardness testing device is a spring-loaded rod of hardened steel. The depth to which it penetrates into the material tested provides an indication of the corresponding Shore hardness which is measured on a scale of 0 Shore (2.5 mm penetration depth) to 100 Shore (0 mm penetration depth). The greater the value, the harder the material. A Shore hardness testing device requires an additional piece of equipment to apply pressure to the test sample down onto the test bench at a force of 12.5 Newton for Shore A or 50 Newton for Shore D. In the process of determining Shore hardness, temperature plays a greater role than it does in determining the hardness of metallic materials. This explains why here the stipulated temperature of 23°C must not be allowed to exceed the temperature range of ± 2 K. The thickness of the material should be at least 9 mm in the 0 to 50 Shore range, and at least 6 mm for harder substances.

For soft elastomers, Shore A is established after measurement with a truncated cone. The flat end of the cone is 0.79 mm in diameter and its cone angle 35°. Weight applied: 1 kg, held in place for 15 sec. Results range (40 – 90 Shore A).

Shore D is established for hard elastomers after measurement with a cone point angled at 30° and with a hemispherical point of 0.1 mm radius. Weight applied: 5 kg, held in place for 15 sec. The results range picks up where Shore A leaves off.
 

Softening agents

Most softening agents (emollients) are liquid at room temperature. However, there is a range of softening agents in solid and paste form with, for the most part, special technological applications.

Softening agents can be classified on the basis of a variety of aspects. In terms of their effectiveness, they are differentiated as elasticators, plasticators, tackifiers, extrusion aids, etc. However, such a classification system generates too many individual distinctions. From the chemical point of view, softening agents can be classified as follows:

-  vegetable oils
-  animal fats
-  mineral oils
-  ester and ether softening agents
-  thioester and thioether softening agents
-  chloroparaffin softening agents
-  low-molecular polymers

Depending on their various structures, softening agents also exert an influence on material properties in terms of processing capacity and vulcanisation capacity. To achieve the best possible results, use is made of blends of the various softening agents.
 

Statistical Process Control (SPC)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a quality assurance and management method. Ensuring that a production process is properly controlled calls for reference data for the control or regulation of the process. Data can be established from the results of the process, e.g. from the diameter of drilled holes, wall thickness and the like. However, data can also take the form of values calculated as the process is undertaken, such as temperature, pressure, speed, defect rate, etc.

SPC is applied for process monitoring purposes in order to guarantee that a stipulated quality level is achieved. On this basis it is possible to derive process capability indices such as cpk values, etc.
 

Underwriter Laboratories (UL)

UL is the product safety certification body in the United States. Across the world, the Dichtomatik Group tests its products to the corresponding US product safety requirements to ensure that these products can be marketed everywhere throughout the United States.

The UL test mark is the most widely accepted proof that a product satisfies US American and Canadian safety requirements. For North American consumers, regulatory authorities and manufacturers, the UL test mark represents the most widely recognised symbol attesting to product safety across North America. Every year sees more than 17 billion UL test marks being applied to new products.

UL 94 Approval = Component flammability test
UL 154 Approval = Seal flammability test

Dichtomatik’s FP751802 material has been issued with UL 154 JMLU2 Code B, D, F, G, H, J (2,3) component approval.
 

VDA 6.1:2003

VDA 6.1:2003 is a German set of regulations for the automotive industry applicable for suppliers of German automobile manufacturers.

Having been developed by the German Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V. (VDA, Association of Automotive Industry Manufacturers), it was updated and published in its fourth edition in 2003. VDA 6.1:2003 is based on ISO 9001:2000, with its requirements presented in two separate sections:

-  Business Management (U Section)
-  Product and Process (P Section)

This distinction between sections clearly demonstrates that VDA 6.1:2003 has been structured along process-oriented lines for a number of years.

Objective:
-  to improve corporate strategy
-  to improve your company's chain of added value
-  customer satisfaction
-  constant improvement of processes
 

VDA Vol. 2 (PPF = Production Process and Product Approval Process)

This is a structured procedure for sampling serial-production components in the automotive field. This is represents the German variant of the PPAP documentation.
 

Vulcanisation

The term 'vulcanisation' is used to describe the procedure for the production of elastomers from rubber by a process of wide-meshed chemical cross-linking. The creation of covalent links between the rubber chains can be undertaken in the form of variety of chemical reactions. The most important method remains cross-linking with sulphur cross-linking systems, with peroxide cross-linking the second most commonly used method.
 

VW – TL 2.8.1

This VW standard is the most frequently used testing specification for elastomers. The standard sets out material requirements and tests for elastomers in automotive applications. The various tests are differentiated on the basis of the main contact medium and classified by the attribution of reference code letters.
Example: VW 2.8.1 T 70
The T stands for Diesel fuel as per TL 788 and biodiesel as per DIN V 51606.
 

WRAS BS 6920

Water Regulations Advisory Scheme (GB)
Water certification for Great Britain
Hot water to 83 °C (formerly WRC)
 

Zero-defect principle

Within the automotive sector in particular, the target aimed for is zero defect quality, even though in reality it might be impossible to reach this target. The production process must be constantly being improved to edge ever closer to the targeted zero defect quality. In general we are talking about ppm defect rates, with the extent and types of defects also having to be discussed with both suppliers and end-user customers.